211 Systems = A collaborative group of local comprehensive and specialized information and referral providers who have agreed to coordinate information and referral service delivery to provide seamless access to information about community resources via the three digit number assigned for this purpose, 211. Depending on the size and nature of the community, 211 systems may consist of only a few organizations that provide information and referral or may include a diverse array of organizations that furnish some type of I&R. Some of these organizations may supply a very specialized type of I&R service (e.g., for people with disabilities or older adults), while others may provide a comprehensive range of assistance. The coordination of all I&R services and programs within a community and, where relevant, beyond, constitutes the 211 system.

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy = Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, known as “ACT” is a mindfulness-based behavioral therapy that challenges the ground rules of most Western psychology. It utilizes an eclectic mix of metaphor, paradox, and mindfulness skills, along with a wide range of experiential exercises and values-guided behavioral interventions. ACT has proven effective with a diverse range of clinical conditions: depression, OCD, workplace stress, chronic pain, the stress of terminal cancer, anxiety, PTSD, etc.

Addiction Recovery Programs = During addiction recovery, individuals in treatment may also undergo various types of therapy and participate in support groups as they work to address and heal the attitudes, thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that might otherwise support continued, problematic substance use. Ongoing participation in therapy and support groups may continue long after the initial period of treatment as they may continue to provide lasting recovery benefits for many individuals.

Addiction Support Group = Mutual support groups whose members are people who are having difficulty controlling their addiction (drog, alcohol, etc.). Families and friends may also be welcome. The groups meet in-person, by telephone or via the Internet, and provide emotional support, information and resources to help participants come to terms with their addiction.

Adult Day Programs = Programs that provide care and supervision in a protective setting for dependent adults living in the community during some portion of a 24-hour day. Services may include social and recreational activities, training that is essential for sustaining activities of daily living, hot meals, as appropriate and, if an adult day health care centre, health and related services.

Adult Education = Programs, usually offered by community adult schools or evening classes at local high schools, that provide instruction in fundamental learning skills for adults who have never attended school or have interrupted formal schooling and need to raise their level of education to increase their self-confidence and/or prepare for an occupation. Emphasis is placed on basic reading, language and mathematics.

Advocacy = Programs that intercede on behalf of individuals and/or groups to ensure that they receive the benefits and services for which they are eligible and that organizations within the established service delivery system meet the collective needs of the community; that attempt to marshal public support for a particular issue or cause; or that seek to influence legislation, local ordinances or administrative rulings in order to benefit specific interest groups or achieve specific social, political or environmental goals.

After Hours Crisis Drop In Programs = Programs that provide access to crisis intervention and support services on a dropin basis for people who are experiencing acute emotional distress during night and weekend hours when other resources are unavailable. Services may include a needs assessment; brief individual, group and family counselling; referrals; and a range of other secondary services depending on the situation. These programs may target homeless and at-risk youth; students; families experiencing an emergency; people who are in crisis due to health, mental health or drug/alcohol issues; or other groups with urgent concerns. Many work closely with police and emergency health services as well as other organizations that provide crisis response assistance; and serve as an after-hours alternative to hospitalization or treatment in a residential setting.

Alternative Medicine = Programs that offer health care and treatment procedures that fall outside the mainstream of conventional medical practice. Most alternative approaches provide preventive care in addition to treatment of established conditions, define health as more than just the absence of disease, focus on natural healing as the treatment of choice, avoid invasive procedures to the extent possible, and approach individuals holistically dealing with their mental, emotional and spiritual needs in addition to the physical body. Many have their origins in the medical systems of non-Western cultures or in ancient healing traditions. Some alternative therapies are used instead of traditional Western “biomedical” procedures; others are complementary, used in addition to conventional care.

Amputee Rehabilitation = Programs that provide comprehensive rehabilitation services for individuals who have lost a limb and need pre-prosthetic care which includes wound and skin care, exercises and other activities to strengthen and condition the affected area and increase mobility skills, and other types of therapy to prepare them to make effective use of a prosthetic device. Some programs may also ensure the proper fitting of a prosthetic device and provide instruction in prosthesis utilization and safety techniques. Emotional support and patient and family education services are also part of the program.

Applied Suicide Intervention Skills = ASIST teaches participants to recognize when someone may have thoughts of suicide and work with them to create a plan that will support their immediate safety.

Armed Forces Emergency Services = Programs that help military personnel stay in touch with their families following the birth of a child, the death or serious illness of a family member or other family emergency.

Art and Culture = Programs that promote, support, produce and/or provide access to the arts and humanities and other experiences which encourage creativity, and also reflect and preserve the collective artistic, intellectual and cultural heritage of the community.

Art Therapy = Programs that offer a form of therapy which encourages individuals to achieve selfexpression and emotional release by communicating their emotions and conflicts graphically through painting, drawing, sculpting and other art forms. Art therapy is based on the premise that the creative process involved in artistic self-expression helps people to resolve conflicts and problems, develop interpersonal skills, manage behaviour, reduce stress, increase self-esteem and self-awareness and achieve insight. It is used both as a diagnostic tool and a treatment technique for people of all ages who have anxiety, depression and other mental and emotional problems and disorders; social and emotional difficulties related to disability and illness; trauma and loss; physical, cognitive and neurological problems; and psychosocial difficulties related to medical illness.

Artist Services = Programs that provide technical services, subsistence funding, studios or living facilities and/or other services for individual artists, filmmakers, musicians, and other performers; or support organizations that produce, present, or support, dance, literary arts, media arts, music, theatre, visual and related arts.

Arts Festivals = Programs that sponsor events which feature activities for the entire family including dance and music performances, storytelling, mime, children’s theatre, comedy, drama, visual arts, film, poetry, multi-cultural programs, laser shows, parades, participatory processions, workshops and exhibits. Includes First Night Celebrations which are annual events in communities throughout the country which celebrate the arrival of the New Year through a festival of the arts. Participants are encouraged to create masks, wear costumes and paint their faces in honour of the occasion. The festival typically concludes with a countdown to midnight and a fireworks finale.

Assessment for Substance Use Disorders = Programs that conduct an evaluation to determine whether an individual has a substance use disorder based on a pathological set of behaviours related to use of that substance as well as the nature and extent of the problem.

Assisted Living = Assisted living is a residence for older people or people with disabilities who require help with some of the routines of daily living as well as access to medical care when needed.

Attachment Theory = Attachment theory is focused on the relationships and bonds between people, particularly long-term relationships, including those between a parent and child and between romantic partners.

Banking and Financial Services = Organizations that are engaged in transactions involving the creation, liquidation or change in ownership of financial assets and/or facilitating financial transactions.

Basic Income Maintenance Programs = Programs that provide cash income on a regular basis, and in some cases, social services to provide for the basic material needs of income-eligible individuals and families.

Basic Needs = Programs that furnish survival level resources including food, housing, material goods, transportation and utilities for individuals with low or fixed incomes, people who are homeless, older adults and/or people with disabilities who are otherwise unable to adequately provide for themselves and their families.

Behavioural Activation = Behavioral activation is one of the most important CBT skills used in treating depression. It has to do with the way that behaviors and feelings influence each other.

Behavioural Learning Therapy = Programs that specialize in providing therapeutic interventions that are based on the principle that most disorders are learned ways of behaving that are maladaptive and consequently can be best modified in more adaptive directions through relearning. Treatment focuses directly on modifying the individual’s troublesome behaviours without reference to introspection, mental processes and contents, or analysis of the origins of the problem.

Benefits Assistance = Programs that provide assistance for people who are having difficulty understanding and/or obtaining grants, payments, services or other benefits for which they are eligible. The programs may help people understand the eligibility criteria for benefits, the benefits provided by the program, the payment process and the rights of beneficiaries; provide consultation and advice; help them complete benefits application forms; negotiate on their behalf with benefits administration staff; and/or represent them in administrative processes or judicial litigation. Included are benefits counselling organizations that offer a range of advocacy services and legal aid programs that offer more formalized legal assistance.

Bioecological Approach = Emphasizes the complex interactions between multiple systems of influence on individuals’ development. These influences range from biological, individual, family, peers, and media, to cultural and historical forces that impact how we change over time.

Biofeedback = Biofeedback is a technique you can use to learn to control some of your body’s functions, such as your heart rate. During biofeedback, you’re connected to electrical sensors that help you receive information about your body. This feedback helps you make subtle changes in your body, such as relaxing certain muscles, to achieve the results you want, such as reducing pain.

Blog, podcast, invited talks = Information/services disseminated via certain social networks through conversation or written publication.

Brain Injury Rehabilitation = Rehabilitation programs that develop an individually tailored treatment plan that combines the resources of physical, occupational and speech/language therapists; physiatrists; neuropsychologists/psychiatrists; cognitive rehabilitation therapists; rehabilitation nurses; vocational counsellors; social workers and/or other specialists to help individuals who have been disabled by an acquired brain injury attain their maximum level of functioning and quality of life. Therapy generally focuses on behavioural management, neuropsychological adaptation, environmental structuring, eating and swallowing management, cognitive and communication skills, daily living and social skills, selfcare, ambulation, academic and vocational skills, and community reintegration. The goal of brain injury rehabilitation is to restore functions and skills that can be recovered and to help patients learn to do things differently when functioning cannot be restored to pre-injury levels.

Build for Zero Canada = Built for Zero Canada is an ambitious national change effort helping a core group of leading communities end chronic homelessness and veteran homelessness – a first step on the path to eliminating all homelessness in Canada.

Burial Benefits = Public programs that pay a portion of the funeral expenses of individuals entitled benefits.

Business Development = Programs that provide technical assistance, financing and a wide variety of other services that support the attraction, expansion and retention of local businesses, assure their competitiveness and help them remain as assets to the local economy.

Business Support Organizations/Services = Organizations that perform any of a wide variety of routine support tasks for businesses and, in some cases, the general public which may include graphic or industrial design services, telephone call centre services, temporary help services, public/private mail services, document copying services and other similar forms of assistance.

Caregiver Consultation and Support = Programs that provide information, guidance and assistance that supports the ability of family members and other informal caregivers to make decisions and solve problems relating to their caregiving role. The service helps the caregiver find practical solutions to concerns about the health and wellbeing of the care recipient; and may be provided via an advice line or an online chat service as well as in inperson settings.

Caregiver Training = Programs that provide training for family members and other informal caregivers which focuses on care-related activities such as medication management, personal care and making the home environment safe and barrier-free as well as on stress management and other techniques to help the caregiver take care of him or herself. The focus of the training is on building the skills and capacity of the caregiver to manage their caregiving role.

Certificates/Forms Assistance = Programs that help people obtain, complete and/or file official forms, certificates, documents, applications or other paperwork that is required to apply for benefits or services, initiate or respond to legal action or to officially handle or document the occurrence of a transaction; that help people acquire copies of official documents on file elsewhere; or that review legal documentation an individual has received to help explain its meaning.

CF Health Services = Programs that provide Canadian Forces services.

CF Member Assistance Program = programs that provide Canadian Forces Member assistance.

Charity Information = Programs that provide authoritative lists of charitable organizations in a particular community or detailed information about the operations and finances of a specific organization based on its most recent annual return filed with Canada Revenue Agency.

Client-centered Therapy = Client Centered Therapy, also known as Client Centered Counselling or Person Centered Therapy, was developed in the 1940s and 50s as a response to the less personal, more “clinical” therapy that dominated the field. It is a non-directive form of talk therapy, meaning it allows the client to lead the conversation and does not attempt to steer the client in any way. Its approach rests on one vital quality: unconditional positive regard. This means that the therapist refrains from judging the client for any reason, providing a source of complete acceptance and support.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy = Programs that specialize in providing therapeutic interventions that treat thoughts and cognitions as behaviours which are amenable to behavioural procedures.

Cognitive Processing Therapy = Cognitive processing therapy (CPT) is a specific type of cognitive behavioral therapy that has been effective in reducing symptoms of PTSD that have developed after experiencing a variety of traumatic events including child abuse, combat, rape and natural disasters. This treatment is strongly recommended for the treatment of PTSD.

Communication tools/services = Programs that provide access to communication services or equipment.

Community Economic Development and Finance = Programs that provide a variety of services and activities that are intended to stimulate the economy; expand employment opportunities; encourage the establishment and growth of commerce and industry; improve the physical infrastructure through redevelopment; support the development, finance, management and preservation of affordable housing; and otherwise enhance the economic development of the community. Many programs focus on impoverished communities and are structured to prevent the outflow of community dollars and to retain and recycle income within the community by investing in the development of local institutions and businesses and thereby creating local jobs, sustaining local services and building a healthier local economy.

Community Kitchen = Community kitchens (also called “collective kitchens”) are community-based cooking programs where small groups of people come together to prepare meals and take food home to their families. In a community kitchen every member contributes by planning, preparing, and cooking food. Community kitchens are great opportunities for learning about the importance of healthy eating and developing the skills to prepare healthy and affordable meals.

Community Meals = Programs that organizes suppers, lunches or other get-togethers that give community residents an opportunity to meet one another in a friendly and informal atmosphere while sharing a meal.

Community Outreach Program = Community outreach programs are a standard way for groups such as social service agencies, nonprofit groups, and church or other religious groups to identify a certain specific need in its community and provide services to the people who need it.

Community Recognition = Programs that recognize the social or civic contributions that people have made to the life of the community, congratulate them on having reached significant personal milestones, or provide opportunities for people to show their respect for their community.

Community Service = Work done without payment to help other people. Criminals whose crime was not serious enough for them to be put in prison are sometimes ordered to do community service.

Comprehensive Dialectical Behaviour Therapy = Comprehensive DBT focuses on teaching clients to learn and use skills that help them regulate their emotions, interact interpersonally, and effectively cope with crises.

Condition Specific Rehabilitation Services = Programs that provide comprehensive rehabilitation services that help people who have specific types of injuries or other impairments to achieve their maximum level of functioning.

Condition Specific Treatment = Programs that provide comprehensive medical and/or surgical services on an inpatient or outpatient basis for people who have a targeted disease, condition or disorder.

Confidential Address Protection Programs = Programs that provide a confidential mail-forwarding service for abused women and men, sexual assault survivors and stalking victims who have relocated to help them safeguard information about their new address. The program provides a substitute mailing address that can be used when home, work or school addresses are required, and forwards all first class mail sent to the substitute address to the individual’s new residence. To further secure a victim’s privacy and safety, confidential address protection programs allow participants to file voter registration, marriage licences, birth certificates and other vital records as confidential records.

Conjoint Counselling = Programs that offer therapeutic sessions to help two individuals who are having a problem with their interpersonal relationship identify and resolve their differences and improve their communication. The therapist focuses primarily on their interaction with one another rather than on each person as an individual. Included are couple counselling, sibling counselling, parent/child counselling and other similar groupings.

Consortium = A consortium is a group made up of two or more individuals, companies, or governments that work together to achieve a common objective.

Continuum of Care = In medicine, describes the delivery of health care over a period of time. In patients with a disease, this covers all phases of illness from diagnosis to the end of life.

Conversations/Networking/Gathering = Programs that provide any kind of services/activities/events promoting conversations, networking and/or gathering.

Coordinated Access = A process through which individuals and families experiencing homelessness or at risk of homelessness, are provided access to housing and support services, based on standardized set of procedures for client intake, assessment of need, and matching and referral to housing.

Counselling Services = Programs that provide guidance and support in resolving personal, social or psychological problems through an interactive process that encourages patients to make maximum use of their assets, strengthen effective existing defenses while eliminating those that are maladaptive, gain insight into conscious or unconscious conflicts, modify their goals and make other decisions that will help them improve their personal and interpersonal functioning and deal effectively with troubling situations in their lives.

Craft = An activity involving skill in making things by hand.

Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation Therapy = Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) has beneficial effects on many mental health problems. Micro-current electrical stimulation, also called cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES), has been cleared (but not officially approved) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of insomnia, depressed mood, and anxiety but is not widely used or recommended by psychiatrists and other mental health providers. Treatment consists of applying very weak pulsed electrical current to the earlobes or scalp.

Crime Victim Accompaniment Services = Programs that provide support for battered women, sexual assault survivors and other victims of crimes by having a staff member go with them when they require a medical examination to gather evidence or need to visit a police station to file a complaint or appear in court to give evidence.

Crime Victim Safety Planning = Programs that help people who are experiencing abuse, exploitation, harassment or are otherwise at risk of violence develop and adapt a personalized, practical plan that can help them anticipate and avoid dangerous situations and know the best way to react when they find themselves in danger. Some programs may target special populations such as victims of domestic violence or human trafficking.

Crime Victime Support = Programs that provide support to victims of crime.

Criminal Justice and Legal Services = Programs that promote and preserve the conditions that enable community residents to live in a safe and peaceful environment through the enforcement of laws that protect life and property and the administration of justice according to the principles of law and equity. Included are crime prevention programs as well as programs that investigate and make arrests for criminal behaviour; provide support for witnesses to and victims of crimes; and provide for the arraignment, prosecution and defence, judgment, sentencing, confinement and eventual release and resettlement of offenders.

Crisis Intervention = Programs that provide immediate assistance for people who are in acute emotional distress; who are or perceive themselves to be in life-threatening situations; who are a danger to themselves or to others; or who are hysterical, frightened or otherwise unable to cope with a problem that requires immediate action. The objective of crisis intervention is to defuse the critical nature of the situation, ensure the person’s safety, and return the individual to a state of equilibrium in which he or she is capable of identifying and seeking solutions to the problem.

Crisis Intervention Hotlines/Helplines = Programs that provide immediate access to support and advice for people who are in distress with the objective of defusing the emotional impact of the crisis, ensuring the person’s safety and helping the person to take the next steps toward resolving the problem. Hotlines/helplines are generally staffed by trained volunteers who are available via the telephone, email, live chat, texting and/or instant message.

Crisis Management = The art of dealing with sudden and unexpected events which disturbs the employees, organization as well as external clients.

Crisis Residential Treatment = Programs that provide a short-term residential alternative to inpatient hospitalization for adults and/or children who are experiencing a mental health crisis and require 24-hour support in a supervised environment to become stabilized, but do not exhibit medical complications that necessitate nursing care.

Crisis/Emergency Shelter = Programs that provide a temporary place to stay for people who are unable to return to their own homes due to sexual assault, domestic violence, human trafficking or other problems. Also included are programs that provide motel vouchers for people who are in one of these situations.

Critical Incident Stress Debriefing = Programs that help individuals who have been involved in emergency operations under conditions of extreme stress or people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as workplace or school violence recover from the traumatizing effects of the experience utilizing a therapeutic technique which enables them to process the event and put it behind them. A CISD enables workers and others to discuss what happened, their role in the event, the impact of the experience and skills for coping with the after effects. A CISD will generally alleviate the acute stress responses which sometimes appear at the scene or immediately thereafter and will at least inhibit delayed stress reactions which can appear days, weeks or even months later.

Critical Incident Stress Management = Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) is an intervention protocol developed specifically for dealing with traumatic events. It is a formal, highly structured and professionally recognized process for helping those involved in a critical incident to share their experiences, vent emotions, learn about stress reactions and symptoms and given referral for further help if required. It is not psychotherapy. It is a confidential, voluntary and educative process.

Cultural Heritage Programs = Programs that support and celebrate the diversity of the community’s social, artistic and intellectual inheritance.

Cultural Transition Facilitation = Programs that help arriving refugees, immigrants and repatriated persons settle and make an adjustment to the traditions, values and lifestyles of their adopted country.

Day Rehabilitation = Programs that provide intensive rehabilitation services for medically stable patients who have sustained a significant loss of independent living skills a result of stroke, brain injury, spinal cord injury, multiple trauma, or other physical or neurological conditions; and require coordinated care and multiple therapies to address their extensive rehabilitation needs. Services include an evaluation of the person’s abilities and disabilities and the development and implementation of a rehabilitation plan that may incorporate physical, occupational, speech and/or other types of therapies; education about modifications in lifestyle that may be necessary including information about diet, exercise and stress reduction; guidance in using adaptive devices which maximize the individual’s functional abilities; and counselling for the person and/or significant others to facilitate a positive adjustment to the person’s current condition. Treatment teams may include physiatrists, physical and occupational therapists, rehabilitation nurses, speech and language pathologists, psychologists, vocational rehabilitation specialists, counsellors and case managers. Day rehabilitation services may be provided by general acute care hospitals or skilled nursing facilities.

Detoxification = Programs that provide assistance and support for individuals who are physically dependent on substances of any kind during the withdrawal period. Detoxification is a medical regimen aimed at managing acute intoxication and withdrawal by systematically reducing the amount of the addictive substance in a patient’s body, providing reasonable control of active withdrawal symptoms and/or averting a lifethreatening medical crisis related to the substance. Detoxification in generally conducted under the supervision of a physician, can take place in a wide variety of settings and at a number of levels of intensity within these settings and has three stages: evaluation, stabilization and fostering patient readiness for and entry into treatment.

Dialectical Behaviour Therapy = Programs that offer a form of therapy that is designed especially for people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) who are involved in self-cutting or other forms of self-mutilitation, have attempted suicide or have suicidal thoughts or exhibit other behaviours related to self-injury. Treatment involves individual therapy, a skills group, telephone contact and therapist consultation. The group skills training has four modules: core mindfulness skills, interpersonal effectiveness skills, emotion regulation skills and distress tolerance skills. The focus of the group sessions is on learning and practicing adaptive skills that are particularly relevant to the problems experienced by people with BPD. While originally developed for this population, dialectical behaviour therapy has been used with people who have other types of emotional disorders.

Disability Benefits = Public social insurance programs that replace income lost because of a physical or mental impairment severe enough to prevent a previously employed person from working. Monthly cash benefits are paid to the eligible individual with a disability and his or her eligible dependents throughout the period of disability.

Disease/Disability Registries = Programs that maintain databases that contain information about people who have been diagnosed or have risk factors associated with a specific type of disease, and who have been treated by or received preventive care interventions from a particular hospital or live within a particular geographic area. Registry information is used by public health authorities to identify and investigate unusual patterns of occurrence of the disease and can help communities plan for and deliver needed medical services. It can also be used to support care management for groups of patients with one or more chronic diseases and to connect people with programs doing medical research.

Distribution of Resources for Substance Use Disorder = Programs that provide resources to individual suffering from substance use disorder.

DUI Remedial Programs = Programs that provide mandated educational, treatment and/or other services for individuals who have been convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol or other drugs including prescription drugs and ordered by the court to seek assistance as part of provincial efforts to enforce DUI laws. Some DUI offender programs also include families.

EAGALA Model = The EAGALA Model provides a standard and structure for providing Equine Assisted Psychotherapy and Equine Assisted Learning sessions. Practicing within a model establishes a foundation of key values and beliefs, and provides a basis of good practice and professionalism. The EAGALA Model provides a framework of practice, but within that framework, there are infinite opportunities for creativity and adaptability to various therapeutic and facilitating styles.

Early Intervention for Mental Illness = Programs that identify and provide treatment for individuals whose personal condition and social experiences could potentially produce mental, emotional or social dysfunctions with the objective of preventing their development; or which conduct general screening efforts to identify and treat children who have emerging problems to ensure the best possible prognosis.

Education = Programs that provide opportunities for people to acquire the knowledge, skills, desirable qualities of behavior and character, and general competence that will enable them to fully participate in and enjoy the social, political, economic and intellectual life of the community.

Education and Support Programs on Food Insecurity = Food insecurity is the inadequate or insecure access to food due to financial constraints.

Educational Programs = Programs within the context of the formal educational system or offered as an adjunct to the traditional school curriculum which provide instructional services that are individualized or specialized to meet the specific needs and interests of learners.

Educational Therapy = Programs that provide diagnostic and treatment services which combine psychotherapeutic and tutorial techniques for individuals who have learning disabilities, dyslexia, perceptual/emotional problems or other difficulties that are interfering with their ability to learn.

Emergency Food = Programs that provide a limited amount of food for individuals or families during times of personal crisis, or for people who have no food or cannot afford to purchase food at retail costs.

Emotional Freedom Technique = Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) is a revolutionary treatment method that offers healing from physical and emotional pain and disease. Without the use of needles, this form of acupuncture uses the fingertips to stimulate energy points on the body.

Emotionally Focused Therapy = Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) is a well-known humanistic approach to psychotherapy developed in tandem with the science of adult attachment, a profound developmental theory of personality and intimate relationships. This science has expanded our understanding of individual dysfunction and health as well as the nature of love relationships and family bonds. Attachment views human beings as innately relational, social and wired for intimate bonding with others. The EFT model prioritizes emotion and emotional regulation as the key organizing agents in individual experience and key relationship interactions.

Employee Assistance Programs = Programs that contract with employers to offer confidential help to employees, and in some cases their families, whose legal, financial, marital, parent-child, child care, alcoholism, drug abuse, health and/or mental health problems could have a direct impact on their attendance and job performance. EAPs vary in complexity from telephone hotlines that offer referrals for needed services to organizations that offer in-person diagnosis and referral, direct counselling and/or extensive treatment for one or a variety of problems.

Employment = Programs that provide employment opportunities for people who are searching for jobs; assist people who are able and willing to work by helping them prepare for, find, secure and retain suitable employment; provide work site evaluation and/or modification support; and/or seek to develop employment opportunities in various fields for people who need a position.

Employment Documentation/Verification = Programs that issue or assist people to obtain documentation which officially affirms that they are eligible for paid employment and may be hired into an available position or may work under specified circumstances.

Employment Insurance = A federal program operated by Employment and Social Development Canada that provides temporary financial assistance for a period of time to eligible individuals who become unemployed and are either actively looking for work or upgrading their skills. Employment insurance may also cover individuals who are sick, pregnant or caring for a newborn or adopted child.

Employment Insurance Benefits Assistance = Programs that provide assistance for people who are having difficulty understanding and/or obtaining the full benefits to which they are entitled by law through the Employment Insurance system. The programs may help people understand the eligibility criteria for employment insurance benefits, the benefits provided by the program, and the rights of beneficiaries; provide consultation and advice; help complete application forms; negotiate on their behalf with employment insurance benefits staff; prepare written appeals; and/or represent them in administrative hearings or judicial litigation.

Employment Preparation/Counseling = Programs that provide assistance for people who need information, guidance and/or training in specific job-related skills to make appropriate occupational choices and secure and retain positions that effectively utilize their abilities.

Employment Transition Counselling = Programs that provide information and guidance in a variety of settings for individuals who have experienced voluntary or involuntary changes in their employment status or are ready to re-enter the workforce after time away.

Equine Facilitated Therapy = Equine-assisted therapy (EAT) encompasses a range of treatments that involve activities with horses and other equines to promote human physical and mental health.

Evidence-Based Practices = Evidence-based practice is defined as a problem-solving and decision making approach in practice that involves the conscientious use of current best (research) evidence, clinical expertise, & patient preferences.

Evidence-Based Trauma Therapy = Based on cognitive-behavioral techniques, including psychoeducation, relaxation, cognitive. restructuring, exposure, and development of a trauma narrative to reduce symptoms, improve peer and parent support, and enhance coping skills.

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing = Programs that help individuals recover from a traumatic event through a procedure which uses physical movement in combination with other therapeutic techniques. The process is based on the hypothesis that traumatization causes an overexcitement of a specific locus of the brain producing a neural pathology that “freezes” the information in its original anxiety-producing form. EMDR permits the “frozen” information to be desensitized, reprocessed and adaptively integrated resulting in diffusion of the traumatic imagery and a reduction of negative client symptoms.

Faith Based Counselling = Programs that specialize in providing therapeutic interventions which focus on helping people relate to and resolve their problems and concerns in the context of their religious/spiritual beliefs.

Family Based Services = Programs that provide a wide variety of social services that are designed to support healthy family development, improve the family’s ability to resolve problems and prevent the need for unnecessary placement of children in foster care, group homes, inpatient substance abuse or mental health treatment programs, residential training schools or other alternative environments when family problems reach crisis proportions. Services may include home visiting services that focus on public health issues, mental health and substance abuse counselling, stress management, etc.; may be available to the community at large, to families at risk for dissolution or those currently in crisis; and may be offered by a single agency or a coalition of agencies that have agreed to provide services according to a coordinated case plan.

Family Counselling = Programs that offer therapeutic sessions that focus on the system of relationships and communication patterns among family members and which attempt to modify those relationships and patterns to achieve greater harmony. The therapist focuses on the family as a unit rather than concentrating on one of the members who is singled out as the person in need of treatment.

Family Liaison Officer = The role of the FLO: 1)Tailor the entire suite of Military Family Services Program (MFSP) services to respond to the needs of families of CAF personnel who are coping with an illness, injury and/or special need, or who have died while serving; Be a member of the Designated Assistant (DA) Disengagement Team; 2)Provide or support the development of educational and awareness sessions, briefings, and resources pertaining to: bereavement, transition; change management; crisis management; family violence; impact of injury; etc.; 3)Support/counsel family members in crisis or imminent crisis; 4)Conduct group and individual counselling sessions to support families of CAF personnel who are coping with an illness, injury and/or special need, or who have died while serving; 5)Assist families of CAF personnel who are coping with an illness, injury and/or special need, or who have died while serving, in their navigation of, and access to, relevant programs and services; 6)Provide interim support and make appropriate referrals to relevant service providers.

Family Permanent Supportive Housing = Programs that provide permanent affordable housing and supportive services for families whose current housing situation is unstable with the objective of preventing family homelessness, preserving families at risk for separation and reunifying families that have been separated. The program generally provides intensive case management involving regular home visits, development of a family care plan, and coordination of services identified by the plan which may include health care, substance abuse treatment, counselling and other mental health services, parenting skills training, family literacy services, tutoring, vocational training, money management and other life skills training, recreational activities, child care and transportation. Some programs focus specifically on families involved in the child welfare system or other family subgroups.

Family Psychoeducation = Programs that provide information for psychiatric patients and their families about the individual’s diagnosis; the meaning of specific symptoms; what is known about the causes, effects and implications of the problem; treatment and/or management options; and how to recognize signs of relapse so they can seek necessary assistance before their difficulty worsens or occurs again. People work towards recovery by developing better skills for overcoming everyday problems and illnessrelated issues, developing social support and improving communication with treatment providers.

Family Resources/Activities = Programs that provides activities and/or resources to families.

Family Support Recruitment/Referral = Programs that identify and enlist people who are willing to provide living arrangements in their homes for children who need an alternative family living environment; offer services that augment and support those that are available through the family unit; or link individuals who are in need of these services with appropriate providers.

Film Presentations = Programs that encourage new, foreign and independent filmmakers through the organization and presentation of film expositions and festivals or which show old or difficult to obtain films in noncommercial facilities, generally at somewhat reduced prices.

Financial Support/Subvention = Means any loans, guarantees, Security or other financial assistance (whether actual or contingent).

Food = Programs that seek to meet the basic nutritional needs of the community by providing access to food products.

Food distribution lines = Food programs that provide boxes or bags of food on a first come, first served basis for eligible people who line up, usually on a designated date at a specified time, to receive service.

Food security programs = Programs that allow to all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.

Food Vouchers = Programs that supply food coupons which can be exchanged in designated grocery stores, supermarkets and/or farmers markets for food products. The vouchers are generally provided to low income individuals and families on an occasional or ongoing basis, but may also be available to other specified populations.

Fundraising = The act of collecting or producing money for a particular purpose, especially for a charity.

General Benefits Assistance = Programs that focus broadly on helping individuals who are having difficulty understanding and/or obtaining grants, payments, services or other benefits for which they are eligible.

General Crime Victim Assistance = Programs that provide a variety of supportive services for victims of crimes and their families which may include general emotional support, crisis counselling, information about police investigative procedures, liaison to police personnel, assistance in completing and filing applications for reimbursement of crime-related expenses or losses, information about the mechanics of court proceedings, advice concerning court appearances, court accompaniment services, assistance in preparing victim impact statements and referrals for other needed services such as medical treatment, shelter away from home, transportation, child care, financial assistance and protective services.

General Legal Aid = Programs that provide legal counselling and/or representation for low-income individuals who need assistance in routine legal matters, usually in the area of bankruptcy, housing, public benefits, family law, elder law or immigration/naturalization.

Goal Attainment Program = Intervention program that is aimed to reduce psychosocial barriers to rehabilitation progress, promote re-integration into life-role activities, increase quality of life and facilitate a return to work.

Goal-Oriented Approach = Goal orientation is the degree by which a person or group of people work toward completing specific goals. This requires two components – the creation of goals and the purposeful pursuit of their fulfillment. The term “goal orientation”, however, can have more specific meaning depending on where it is used.

Grant/Funding = Money provided, especially by an organization or government, for a particular purpose.

Grocery Ordering/Delivery = Food markets that accept online and/or telephone orders and deliver food and household supplies to the homes of people who are unable to go out and shop on their own behalf or who prefer to have their groceries delivered.

Grounding strategies/techniques = Grounding techniques help control post-trauma symptoms by turning attention away from thoughts, memories, or worries, and refocusing on the present moment.

Group Counselling = Programs that offer therapist-facilitated collective treatment sessions in which unrelated groups of individuals, couples or families discuss their attitudes, feelings and problems and, with input from other members of the group, attempt to achieve greater self and interpersonal understanding and adjustment and explore solutions to their problems.

Guidance and Counselling = Programs that provide advice and guidance for students who need assistance in choosing courses or areas for major study, preparing for a vocation or further education, or coping with learning problems, or who, require specialized support.

Harm Reduction Approach = Harm reduction is a set of practical strategies and ideas aimed at reducing negative consequences associated with drug use. Harm Reduction is also a movement for social justice built on a belief in, and respect for, the rights of people who use drugs.

Health = Programs that provide preventive, diagnostic and treatment services in a variety of community and hospital-based settings to help people achieve, maintain and enhance a state of emotional and physical well-being.

Health Care Referrals = Programs that link people who are in need of medical care, nursing care, dental care or other types of health care services with qualified practitioners.

Health Education = Programs that provide information that improves the public’s understanding of living and working conditions and other factors that safeguard their health and prevent or reduce the risk of injury, disease, disability and premature death. Health education programs help people make informed decisions about matters which affect their personal health and the health of others.

Health Insurance /Dental Coverage = Organizations that issue insurance policies which reimburse policy holders for all or a portion of the cost of hospital, medical or dental care or lost income arising from an illness or injury.

Health Insurance Information/Counselling = Programs that offer information and guidance for people who need assistance in selecting appropriate health insurance coverage and which may also answer questions about health insurance benefits and help people complete insurance forms.

Health Resocialization = Programs that provide social and recreational activities for people who are recovering from surgery or a serious illness to help them gain confidence and readjust to living and/or working in the community.

Health Screening/Diagnostic Services = Programs that utilize one or a combination of diagnostic tools to test large groups of people who are assumed to be well for the presence of a particular disease or condition or for certain risk factors that are known to be associated with that disease or condition; or which conduct in-depth tests to establish the cause and nature of an individual’s presenting illness. The purpose of screening is to identify people who have a potential problem and refer them for early diagnosis and treatment and, where possible, to provide preventive measures. Early identification is particularly important when dealing with conditions that are more difficult to treat when fully developed.

Health Supportive Services = Programs that provide equipment, information, social services or other forms of support which supplement the treatment or habilitation of people who have illnesses, injuries or disabilities or facilitate their ability to function.

Health/Disability Related Counselling = Counselling is the skilled and principled use of relationship to facilitate self- knowledge, emotional acceptance and growth and the optimal development of personal resources. The overall aim is to provide an opportunity to work towards living more satisfyingly and resourcefully.

Heart Rate Viability = Looking at HRV can provide a lot of information about an individual’s physical and mental health because it demonstrates the body’s ability to respond to stress and change.

Hippotherapy = Programs that offer a form of treatment for individuals who have movement dysfunction that uses the multidimensional movement of the horse to improve neurological function and sensory processing. Hippotherapy can improve balance, posture, mobility and function; but may also affect psychological, cognitive, behavioural and communication functions. It is typically offered by physical therapists, occupational therapists and speech therapists who have been trained in the process.

Historic Preservation = Programs that acquire, protect, maintain and restore structures, art and cultural objects, landscapes, sites or entire districts that have, architectural, archaeological, cultural, or artistic significance for the enjoyment and edification of current and future generations.

Holistic Approach = A holistic approach means to provide support that looks at the whole person, not just their mental health needs. The support should also consider their physical, emotional, social and spiritual wellbeing.

Home Improvement/Accessibility = Programs that pay for or provide assistance in the form of consultation, labour and/or supplies for people want to build an accessible home or need to upgrade their homes to make them attractive, safe, accessible and energy-efficient.

Homeless Diversion Programs = Programs that help people seeking shelter identify immediate alternate housing arrangements and if necessary connect them with services to help them return to permanent housing. The main difference between diversion and other permanent housing focused interventions centers on the point at which intervention occurs. Prevention targets people at imminent risk of homelessness, diversion targets people as they are applying for entry into shelter, and rapid re-housing targets people who are already homeless.

Homeless Family Reunification Services = Programs that help people who are homeless because they have become estranged from their families establish contact with their families. The program may also, where appropriate, help them negotiate the conditions under which they can return to their families and arrange for transportation home.

Homeless Meals = Programs offered by churches, restaurants and other organizations that provide meals in a central location for people who lack the resources needed to buy and prepare food.

Homeless Permanent Supportive Housing = Programs that provide affordable, community-based housing for individuals and families who have experienced long-term or chronic homelessness and have been diagnosed as having a physical or developmental disability, a severe mental illness, substance use disorder problems or HIV/AIDS; or are members of another designated group within the homeless population. Permanent supportive housing programs generally provide residents with the rights of tenancy under provincial or local landlord/tenant laws and are linked to services designed to meet residents’ needs. Supportive services vary depending on the resident population. Supportive services may be offered on-site or offsite, or be provided by a mobile service team and may be available to people with current housing who are at risk of becoming homeless.

Homeless Shelter = Programs that provide a temporary place to stay (usually three days to two weeks) for people who have no permanent housing. Also included are programs that provide motel vouchers for people who are homeless.

Homelessness Allied Network = Networks that bring together different individuals, organizations and communities to raise awareness, share best and promising practices to transform local responses to homelessness and influence policy in support of ending homelessness.

Homelessness Prevention Programs = Programs that provide financial assistance and supportive services that stabilize households in their current housing or help them to move into new housing without first entering the shelter system or experiencing homelessness. Services may include financial assistance, housing relocation and stabilization services, legal assistance, credit counselling and case management. The goal is to help households resolve their crisis, secure short-term financial or rental assistance as needed, and access ongoing sources of support in the community in order to remain housed. If the individual or family is unable to stay in their existing housing, the prevention program helps the household to find an alternative housing arrangement that is safe, reasonably affordable and adequate.

Homelessness Training and Technical Assistance = Helping communities and organizations end homelessness with expert training and technical assistance.

Horticultural Therapy = Programs that offer a form of therapy which enables individuals with mental, physical or developmental disabilities, substance abuse disorders, chronic health conditions or other problems to achieve self-expression and emotional release through gardening.

Household Goods = Programs that pay for or provide new, reconditioned or secondhand furnishings for homes or apartments.

Housing Application Support = Programs that support people in need in completing and responding to the documents for a housing application.

Housing Development = Programs that monitor and analyze the current housing environment in a community and provide support for the development, finance, management and preservation of a mix of decent, safe and affordable housing for individuals and families of all income levels. Housing development programs improve the livability of communities, expand home ownership opportunities, build a strong tax base, encourage safe streets and empower neighbourhoods and communities to flourish.

Housing First Approach = ‘Housing First’ is a recovery-oriented approach to ending homelessness that centers on quickly moving people experiencing homelessness into independent and permanent housing and then providing additional supports and services as needed.

Housing Search and Information = Programs that help people to find and select available rental or purchasable housing, commercial lots and/or residential lots which meet their individual needs. Included is information that is available online, in print or in other formats.

Housing Search Assistance = Programs that assign a staff member to assist people who are looking for housing to survey the available residences and to choose and obtain the most suitable option.

Housing/Shelter = Programs that seek to meet the basic shelter needs of the community by providing temporary shelter for people who are in emergency situations, home improvement programs, housing location assistance and a variety of housing alternatives.

Humanities Activities/Events = Programs that sponsor events which provide opportunities for people to participate in the study and discussion of contemporary values and public issues in the humanities and social sciences with the objective of developing an understanding and appreciation for these fields of learning.

Hypnotherapy = Programs that utilize hypnosis, an artificially induced state that is characterized by physical relaxation and greatly heightened suggestibility to the hypnotist, either as an aid or the primary means of treatment for people who have bodily disorders or mental, emotional or social problems. The individual is encouraged to remember and verbalize the feelings, memories and difficulties that emerge during hypnosis.

In Person Crisis Intervention = Programs that provide an opportunity for people who are emotionally distressed and/or for their significant others to meet face-to-face with someone who has been trained to assess and resolve the immediate crisis, if possible, and to link the person with appropriate resources for ongoing assistance.

Income Support and Employment = Programs that help to meet the economic needs of the community by helping residents prepare for, find and sustain gainful employment; providing public assistance and support for those who are eligible; ensuring that retirees, older adults, people with disabilities and other eligible individuals receive the social insurance benefits to which they are entitled; and offering temporary financial assistance for people who are experiencing an unexpected financial crisis.

Independent Living Skills Instruction = Programs that assist people who have disabilities to learn the basic skills of daily living through individual and group counselling and instruction, experience and practice in coping with real or simulated life situational demands; or through the use of assistive devices, special equipment and specialized assistants.

Individual Counselling = Programs that offer personal therapeutic sessions in which the therapist works on a one-to-one basis with clients to help them resolve their mental, emotional or social problems.

Information and Referral = Programs whose primary purpose is to maintain information about human service resources in the community and to link people who need assistance with appropriate service providers and/or to supply descriptive information about the agencies or organizations which offer services. The information and referral process involves establishing contact with the individual, assessing the individual’s long and short-term needs, identifying resources to meet those needs, providing a referral to identified resources, and, where appropriate, following up to ensure that the individual’s needs have been met.

Information Hub = The Information Hubs are centers that provide safe and accurate information about migration procedures, services for migrants, the risks of irregular migration, and regular migration options.

Information Services = Programs that provide for the collection, classification, storage, retrieval and dissemination of recorded knowledge for the community. Included are electronic information resources, information and referral programs, information lines, library services, media services, public awareness/education campaigns, research data and rumour control activities.

Information Sources = Programs that provide information about a particular topic or service that interested individuals can access on a website or in person, or by telephone, email, chat, text or other communication channel such as a video relay service. Information may be in a self-serve, browsable format or provided by live agents with expertise in the field.

Inpatient Rehabilitation = Programs that provide intensive rehabilitative services on a 24-hour basis for patients who are severely disabled as a result of injury or disease. Services include a thorough evaluation of the person’s abilities and disabilities and the development and implementation of a rehabilitation plan which may incorporate physical, occupational, speech and/or other types of therapies; education about modifications in lifestyle which may be necessary including information about diet, exercise and stress reduction; guidance in using adaptive devices which maximize the person’s functional abilities; and counselling for the person and/or significant others to facilitate a positive adjustment to the person’s current condition. Inpatient rehabilitation services may be provided by general acute care hospitals or skilled nursing facilities.

Integral Development = Integral development is the general name given to a host of policies that work in tandem to foster sustainable development in both developing and underdeveloped countries.

Internet Based Crisis Intervention = Programs that provide an opportunity for people who are emotionally distressed to have one-on-one Internet chat room sessions with people who are trained in supportive listening and crisis intervention. The objectives of the sessions are to defuse the immediate crisis, ensure the person’s safety, and assist the person to take the next immediate steps toward resolving the problem.

Job Development = Programs that seek out and create employment opportunities in various fields for people who need work. Activities may include collecting and distributing information about job opportunities and/or prospective changes in the demand for specific occupations, encouraging potential employers to create jobs, informing employers of available personnel and other comprehensive or targeted efforts to generate new job prospects.

Job Finding Assistance = Programs that help people identify and secure paid employment opportunities that match their aptitude, qualifications, experience and interests.

Kinesiotherapy = Programs that evaluate muscle strength and endurance, functional mobility, neuromuscular coordination, flexibility, joint range of motion, cardiovascular fitness and reaction time and oversee, under the direction of a physician, a program of therapeutic exercise and education designed to improve the quality of life, health, fitness and independence of medically-stable individuals in wellness, sub-acute, extended care or home settings.

Law Enforcement Community Engagement/Outreach = Programs whose primary purpose is to acquaint the public with police procedures and specific crime prevention and other law enforcement programs that are designed to protect the community.

Law Enforcement Services = Programs offered by law enforcement agencies and other organizations that provide specific measures for discouraging preventable crime, obtaining information from the public about suspected criminal activity, investigating alleged crimes, analyzing physical evidence, providing support for victims and witnesses of crimes and reducing targeted types of crime.

Legal Assistance Referral Services = Programs that maintain lists of lawyers, paralegals, mediators and other legal professionals and services, and link people who need legal assistance with those who specialize in the required area of law.

Legal Counselling = Programs that are staffed by lawyers who offer information and guidance regarding legal matters, proposed lines of conduct, claims or contentions, responsibilities and liabilities; and offer suggestions for a course of action, but do not represent clients in court.

Legal Expense Insurance = Companies that support their policyholders by providing legal advice and covering litigation costs, regardless of whether the insured is the claimant or the defendant.

Legal Information Services = Programs that provide information about specific legal problems and procedures that interested individuals. Information may be in a selfserve, browsable format or provided by live agents with expertise in the field. Also included are legal aid services and other programs that provide basic information about family law, patient rights, the rights of persons with disabilities, and other legal topics via workshops, classes, speaking engagements, printed materials, websites and other similar educational avenues.

Legal Services = Programs that provide assistance in the form of advocacy, arbitration, class action litigation, legal counselling, legal representation, mediation, paralegal counselling, self-representation assistance and/or court watching which focus on a particular area of law.

Life Insurance = Public programs that issue policies in which the organization, in return for premium payments, agrees to pay a specified sum (the face value or material value of the policy) to the designated beneficiary upon the death of the person who is insured.

Life Transition Services = Services provides individualized support designed to assist each person find opportunity and meaning in their lives.

Local Transportation = Organizations that arrange for or provide transportation for individuals whose points of origin and destinations are within their community or other nearby communities. Also provide information for the public about rates, schedules and routes for these services.

Long Distance Transportation = Organizations that provide transportation for individuals whose destinations are outside the local area. Also provide information to the public about rates, schedules and routes for these services.

Low Cost Meals = Restaurants, and other eating establishments operated by hospitals, senior centres or other organizations or functioning independently which provide reduced-cost meals for low-income people, older adults or other targeted individuals.

Mandated = Organisation which has an official order to do something.

Material Goods = Programs that pay for, provide and/or repair basic household, work-related and personal necessities for people who need them. Also included are organizations that provide office equipment and supplies for individuals and businesses, operate lost and found services where people can retrieve lost possessions or make commodities broadly available to the community at large.

Meals = Programs that provide supplementary nutrition (which may include hot meals, snacks or milk) typically for homeless people, individuals with low or fixed incomes, older adults, children from low-income families and/or people with disabilities.

Medical Cannabis Prescription/Treatment = Programs that provide prescription and/or treatment using medical cannabis.

Medical Equipment/Supplies = Programs that pay for or provide necessary in-home hospital equipment, prevention kits and other medical supplies that are required by people who want to prevent the transmission of an infectious disease, are coping with the effects of a chronic health condition or disability or are convalescing following surgery or illness. Included are programs that provide medical equipment on a loan basis as well as those that provide equipment that people can keep.

Medical Expense Assistance = Programs that pay the health care expenses of people who are unable to obtain necessary care without assistance. Medical expense assistance programs may have age, income, disability, need or other eligibility requirements.

Medical Information Services = Programs that provide information about specific health and health-related topics including diseases and conditions, alcohol and drug abuse, mental health, safety and other similar topics that interested individuals can access on a website or in person, or by other communication channel. Information may be in a self-serve, browsable format or provided by live agents with expertise in the field. Also included are 811 or similar services that, in addition to answering medical questions, help callers determine if they are experiencing a medical emergency and need immediate treatment.

Medical Public Assistance Programs = Programs that provide financial assistance to ensure that low-income and indigent individuals and families have access to essential medical services.

Medical Respite Facilities/Beds for Homeless People = Programs that provide short term nursing and recuperative care for homeless people who are too ill or frail to recover from a physical illness or injury while living on the streets, but are not ill enough to be in a hospital. Included are shelter-based programs, transitional housing-based programs and respite care programs within nursing facilities.

Mental Health Assessment and Treatment = Programs that provide diagnostic and treatment services for individuals whose psychiatric problems or other emotional difficulties can benefit from regular consultation and therapy with a mental health professional.

Mental Health Evaluation/Assessment = Programs that provide screening, diagnostic and treatment planning services for people who are experiencing acute or chronic psychiatric problems.

Mental Health Expense Assistance = Programs that pay the mental health care expenses of people who are unable to obtain necessary care without assistance. Mental health expense assistance programs may have age, income, disability, need or other eligibility requirements.

Mental Health First Aid = MHFA is the help provided to a person developing a mental health problem, experiencing a mental health crisis, or a worsening of their mental health.

Mental Health Halfway Houses = Programs that provide congregate living arrangements and a wide variety of counselling and supportive services to facilitate the return to the community, if possible, of people who have received psychiatric treatment in an inpatient or residential treatment facility for acute or chronic mental or emotional disorders. Included are facilities that provide brief, intermediate and lifelong living arrangements in a sheltered environment.

Mental Health Information/Education = Programs that provide information through a variety of channels that improves the public’s understanding of mental health and mental illness; the nature, etiology, diagnosis and treatment or management of specific mental disorders; and strategies for reducing the incidence of problems where possible. Mental health education programs help people make informed decisions about matters that affect their personal mental health and that of others. They inform the public of the risk factors and signs of mental health problems, encourage people to take advantage of early detection programs, help people modify behaviours that compromise their own mental health and provide support for family members and friends who are coping with mental illness or other mental health issues that have affected a loved one.

Mental Health Intervention Programs = Programs staffed by trained intervention specialists who work with family members, friends and others who are concerned about a loved one’s mental health problem. A meeting is planned, rehearsed and carried out during which the person is confronted with how their mental illness may be affecting their career, family life or physical health with the objective of persuading them to seek treatment. Assistance during the intervention including mediation, if required, and postintervention support are generally available.

Mental Health Self-Management Programs = Programs that provide a set of strategies, tools and behaviours that a person can adopt in their daily life to reduce symptoms related to anxiety, depression or bipolarity, prevent relapse, and improve their well-being.

Mental Health Support Services = Programs that offer early intervention, transitional care or other services that supplement and facilitate primary and adjunctive therapies; which offer community mental health education programs; or which link people who are in need of treatment with appropriate private providers.

Military Chaplaincy Services = Offices within the military that are staffed by ministers, priests, imams and rabbis who provide for the spiritual needs of all military personnel, their family members and Department of National Defence civilian personnel, regardless of denomination.

Military Law = Programs that provide assistance for people who are employed by any of the branches of the armed forces and have committed an offence which brings them under the jurisdiction of the military courts.

Military Service = Organizations that are involved in the registration of people of legal age for military service and the recruitment, selection, training, stationing, deployment and support of military personnel and their dependents.

Military Service Recognition = Programs that provide military service recognition through any kind of servicies, activities, events.

Military Student Transition Assistance = Programs that provide assistance for military-connected students in grades K-12 that help them cope with the challenges of moving and adjusting to a new school while meeting their academic and personal-social goals. Transition consultants work directly with students and their parents to help them feel engaged in the school district, but also educate teachers and school personnel about issues unique to their military students. They address both school and deployment related concerns.

Military Transition Assistance Programs = Programs that provide guidance and information regarding benefits, services and outplacement assistance for those leaving or retiring from active duty and returning to civilian life, and their family members with the objective of making the transition as smooth and stress-free as possible. Services may include benefits counselling, employment search and placement assistance, relocation services, financial planning assistance, eligibility information regarding medical and dental insurance coverage and other forms of assistance to facilitate adjustment to civilian life.

Mindfullness-based cognitive therapy = Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy builds upon the principles of cognitive therapy by using techniques such as mindfulness meditation to teach people to consciously pay attention to their thoughts and feelings without any judgments.

Mobile Application = Programs that provide services via a mobile application.

Mobile Devices = Programs that pay for or provide portable computing, communications or entertainment devices for use in a variety of environments.

Mobile Hotspot Devices = Programs that provide portable devices that people who need Internet access at home can borrow for designated periods of time. A mobile hotspot is personal device that creates a small local area of Wi-Fi coverage allowing nearby Wi-Fi devices to connect to the Internet. The device serves as a link between nearby Wi-Fi devices and a cellular data network.

Motivational Interviewing = Programs that specialize in motivational interviewing, a clinical approach that helps people make positive behavioural changes to support better mental and physical health. It might be used with regard to mental health and substance use disorders, and other chronic conditions, but also with general lifestyle management and change. The approach upholds four principles: expressing empathy and avoiding arguing, developing discrepancy, rolling with resistance, and supporting self-efficacy.

Music Performances = Community or university-based programs or organizations operating on a commercial basis that offer classical, jazz, folk or rock concerts or other types of musical productions. Also included are programs that arrange for music festivals which are often organized thematically within a prescribed period of time and music competitions that are staged as public performances.

Narrative therapy = Narrative therapy is a style of therapy that helps people become—and embrace being—an expert in their own lives. In narrative therapy, there is an emphasis on the stories that you develop and carry with you through your life.

National conferences = Programs that offers education/services via communication in national conferences.

Neurofeedback = Neurofeedback is a kind of biofeedback, which teaches self-control of brain functions to subjects by measuring brain waves and providing a feedback signal.

Neurolinguistic Programming = Programs that specialize in providing therapeutic interventions that are based on a combination of cognitive-behavioural theories of personality, studies in linguistics, and brain-function research which suggests that different individuals have different cognitive styles which derive from right or left brain hemisphere preferences and which result in different mechanisms for processing sensory information. The goal of the therapist is to identify the individual’s preferred sensory system and related learning strategies, and to instruct the person in how to use these modalities for effective functioning.

Neuromodulation Therapies = Programs that provide treatment that employs advanced medical device technologies to enhance or suppress activity of the nervous system for the treatment of pain and disease. The technologies include implantable as well as non-implantable devices that deliver electrical, chemical or other agents to reversibly modify brain and nerve cell activity.

Non-profit = Non-profit organizations are associations, clubs, or societies that are not charities and are organized and operated exclusively for social welfare, civic improvement, pleasure, recreation, or any other purpose except profit.

Northern Food Access Programs = Programs that improve access to perishable nutritious food such as vegetables, fruit, bread, meat and milk by Canadians living in remote Northern regions, particularly those in indigenous communities.

Occupational Therapy = Programs that evaluate the task performance skills of individuals who may be having difficulty engaging in self-care, work, play or leisure time activities and help people across the lifespan participate in the things they want and need to do through the therapeutic use of everyday activities. Occupational therapy services typically include an individualized evaluation, during which the individual/family and occupational therapist agree on the person’s goals; customized intervention to improve the person’s ability to perform daily activities and reach their goals; and an outcomes evaluation to ensure that the goals are being met.

Older Adult/Disability Related Supportive Housing = Residential facilities for older adults and/or people with disabilities who are unable to function in an independent living environment because they need assistance with toileting, bathing, dressing, medication management and administration, meals and housekeeping and other activities of daily living, but do not require nursing care on a regular basis.

Organizational Support = Organizations that are actively seeking individuals with the requisite skills and experience who are willing to fill positions handling routine, day-to-day administrative tasks.

Organizational/Community/International Services = Programs that provide any of a broad spectrum of services that benefit entire communities or which offer services that are province-wide, regional, national or international in scope. Included are opportunities for individuals or groups to enjoy the artistic and cultural life of the community, participate in community improvement or service projects, engage in philanthropic endeavours, have a voice in the political process, obtain or offer assistance in times of disaster, have access to information services, etc.

Outpatient Care = Any health care service provided to a patient who is not admitted to a facility. Outpatient care may be provided in a doctor’s office, clinic, the patient’s home or hospital outpatient department.

Outreach Programs = Organizations that make an effort to increase the availability and utilization of community services by specific target populations by providing direct services for targeted individuals in their homes or other convenient locations or by making special efforts to ensure that a particular group is aware of available services and encouraged to participate. Included are programs that do outreach regarding their own services as well as those which encourage a target population to use a wide variety of services.

Pain Management = Multidisciplinary programs that specialize in the treatment of individuals who have chronic, severe pain of organic origin that has not responded to medical or surgical therapy. Treatment is individualized and may include occupational therapy, muscle relaxation, behaviour modification, stress management, biofeedback, psychological and psychosocial counselling, nutrition counselling, exercise programs and a variety of physical intervention techniques.

Patient Rights Assistance = Programs that provide information, education, advocacy and/or other forms of legal assistance which relate to the rights of people who are patients in a health or mental health care facility, who are residents of convalescent or other long or short-term care facilities including adult residential care homes, or who are incapacitated and are being cared for at home by family members. Services may also be available to significant others of these individuals.

Patient/Family Support Services = Programs that provide support services for patients and their families. Included are offices in hospitals or medical clinics that provide advocacy, social work services, or assistance related to admissions or billing; temporary housing for patients/families; mercy flights; morale boosting activities; and other services that support the ability of patients and their families to cope with illness.

Peer Counselling = Programs that offer individual therapeutic sessions which are facilitated or guided by an individual who is the same age as the client (an age-peer) or who has experienced and resolved the same type of problem as the client.

Peer Support Services = Mental health agencies, counselling centres and independent, peer-run organizations that offer, as a component of their programming, the services of peer support providers with “lived experience” who have been trained and certified to work with individuals who have struggles pertaining to mental health or psychological trauma. Peer support specialists work with individuals as they develop and implement a personal recovery plan, which can also serve as a contract for engagement, and function as a complement to traditional clinical care.

Peer-Support = Peer support is emotional and practical support between people who share a common experience, such as a mental health challenge or illness.

Pension Benefits Assistance = Programs that provide information, education, advocacy and/or other forms or legal assistance for people who are experiencing difficulties understanding or collecting their retirement benefits or who have other complaints about the terms or administration of their public or private pension plan or fund.

Personal Goods/Services = Programs that pay for or provide new or secondhand personal necessities

Personal Injury Assistance = Programs that provide assistance for people who have suffered bodily harm or damage to their health as a result of an accident or other occurrence in which negligence was involved; or who have been injured through an invasion of personal rights such as libel, slander, malicious prosecution, false imprisonment or mental suffering. Also included are programs that assist people who have been accused of inflicting any of the above forms of personal injury. Some programs limit their services to personal injury defence.

Pet Assisted Therapy = Programs that help veterans with PTSD, emotionally disturbed individuals or people who are isolated improve their personal and social functioning by giving them an opportunity to take responsibility for and/or relate to a domestic animal. Also included are programs that bring dogs or other small pets to visit people residing in a nursing facility or another institutional setting who are ill or elderly or have disabilities; and those that employ Reading Education Assistance Dogs (R.E.A.D.).

Physical Health Services = Services to improve physical health which is the well-being of the body and the proper functioning of the organism of individuals, which is a normal condition for individuals of both physical, and mental condition who are not suffering from any type of sickness.

Physical Therapy = Programs that evaluate joint motion, muscle strength and endurance, heart and lung function and the ability of people to perform activities of daily living; and utilize the therapeutic properties of exercise, heat, cold, electricity, ultraviolet, water, manipulation and massage to improve circulation, strengthen muscles, reduce pain and restore mobility to people who have been disabled by a stroke, arthritis, back or spinal cord injuries or other debilitating conditions.

Post-Traumatic Growth Approach = Post-traumatic growth (PTG) is a theory that explains this kind of transformation following trauma. It holds that people who endure psychological struggle following adversity can often see positive growth afterward.

Prescription Medication Services = Programs that provide access to low-cost or difficult to obtain prescription drugs or supportive services that help patients take their medication as prescribed by their physician.

Professional supervision/consultation = Programs that provide evaluative and interactive process where the supervisor oversees the work of the supervisee, for the purpose of enhancing professional skills and functioning.

Profit = An organization that operates to make a profit, especially one (such as a hospital or school) that would more typically be nonprofit.

Progressive Goal Attainment Program = The Progressive Goal Attainment Program is an evidence-based treatment program for reducing disability associated with pain, depression, cancer and other chronic health conditions.

Progressive Relaxation = Programs that specialize in providing therapeutic interventions that utilize a technique which has the individual participate in a series of progressively more threatening day dreams or visualizations after mastering basic muscular relaxation. As the patient learns to relax in spite of progressively more threatening images, this learning is transferred to everyday situations.

Prolonged Exposure Therapy = Prolonged exposure teaches individuals to gradually approach their trauma-related memories, feelings and situations. They presumably learn that trauma-related memories and cues are not dangerous and do not need to be avoided.

Protection and Advocacy for Individuals With Disabilities = Programs that provide assistance for individuals with disabilities who are having difficulty understanding and/or obtaining the full benefits and services to which they are entitled by law. Protection and advocacy programs provide legal representation and other advocacy services for all people with disabilities and endeavour to ensure full access to inclusive educational programs, financial entitlements, health care, accessible housing, transportation and productive employment opportunities.

Psychiatric Aftercare Services = Programs that provide continuing treatment and other supportive services for people who have been discharged from a residential treatment or inpatient psychiatric facility with the objective of maintaining the improvement achieved during inpatient treatment and preventing readmission.

Psychiatric Occupational Therapy = Programs that involve people who have mental, emotional or social problems in selected age and interest-appropriate activities which are aimed at increasing their self-awareness, self-esteem, personal effectiveness, decision-making ability and overall self-sufficiency as individuals and as group members. Activities are structured to accomplish individual goals which have been established by the therapist or treatment team.

Psychiatric Services = Programs that are staffed by physicians who specialize in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of mental, emotional and behaviour disorders.

Psychodrama = Programs that specialize in providing therapeutic interventions that are based on the theories that human beings maintain a series of roles in different situations such as a work role, a spousal role, a role with friends, and so forth. In each of these roles, the person adopts a comfortable and practical position which they then repeat, even in situations where it is not effective. The task of the therapist is to present the client with an imaginary situation and an opportunity to safely practice new approaches to that situation or to act out unconscious fantasies which the real world has not given them an opportunity to express.

Psychodynamic Therapy/Approach = Programs that specialize in providing therapeutic interventions that are based on any of the psychological systems that explain behaviour in terms of motivational forces at the unconscious level. Therapy focuses on the mental and emotional forces or processes, especially those experienced and developed in early childhood, and their effects on the individual’s past and current behaviour and mental states.

Psychoeducation Services = Programs that provide information for psychiatric patients about the individual’s diagnosis; the meaning of specific symptoms; what is known about the causes, effects and implications of the problem; treatment and/or management options; and how to recognize signs of relapse so they can seek necessary assistance before their difficulty worsens or occurs again.

Psychological Trauma Treatment = Form of therapy that can help you deal with the emotional response caused by a traumatic event.

Psychosocial intervention = Psychosocial intervention refers to therapies or actions used to help a person reintegrate into society in a healthful way when there has been some disconnect with society.

Psychotherapy services = Psychotherapy is a way to help people with a broad variety of mental illnesses and emotional difficulties. Psychotherapy can help eliminate or control troubling symptoms so a person can function better and can increase well-being and healing.

Public Access Computers/Tools = Programs that make computers, printers and other electronic equipment available for public use, primarily for word processing, spread sheets and other document development applications.

Public Awareness/Education = Programs that utilize a wide variety of materials including pamphlets and other literature, media presentations, speakers, and prevention programs to make the public aware of the human service needs of the community, the resources that are available to meet those needs, and the issues which are relevant to specific social problems and the measures that have been proposed for their solution.

Qualitative = In the social sciences, qualitative methods include a set of research methods used in qualitative studies.

Quantitative = Quantitative research is a data collection technique that allows the researcher to analyze behaviors, opinions, or even expectations in quantity. The objective is often to deduce statistically measurable conclusions, unlike a qualitative study.

Rapid Re-Housing Programs = Programs that help individuals and families experiencing episodic or transitional (as opposed to chronic) homelessness transition more quickly out of the shelter system or avoid it altogether, and move into permanent housing ideally within 30 days of becoming homeless. Rapid re-housing assistance is generally offered without preconditions and the resources and services provided are typically tailored to the unique needs of each household. Services include housing search and selection support, assistance in negotiating the terms of a lease, short term rent subsidies and move-in assistance, individualized case management after the individual/family has moved into the home, ongoing crisis prevention and crisis management services as needed, facilitated access to community resources and other supportive services.

Rational Emotive Therapy = Programs that specialize in providing therapeutic interventions that are based on the theory that self-defeating thoughts and irrational beliefs and feelings underlie disordered behaviour. RET therapists identify and vigorously challenge irrational thoughts and beliefs utilizing a technique called cognitive restructuring to alter maladaptive thought patterns and replace them with more adaptive cognitions.

Recognition/Remembrance Services = Programs that provide recognition and/or remembrances services/events/activities.

Recovery-centered Approach = Include understanding that each person is different and should be supported to make their own choices, listened to and treated with dignity and respect. 

Recovery will mean different things to different people.

Redevelopment Programs = Programs that acquire and/or redevelop property in a community with the objective of providing an affordable, safe, sanitary and pleasant place for people to live and work while at the same time attracting private investment in business and industry. Redevelopment programs clear slums and renew or rehabilitate old housing and other structures in blighted and depressed sections of the community, provide for commercial development, offer tax incentives and take other steps to revitalize urban and rural areas.

Rehabilitation/Habilitation Services = Programs that provide rehabilitation and/or habilitation services. Rehabilitation services involve a combination of treatment and education services which are designed to restore maximum functioning, a sense of well-being and a personally satisfying level of independence for individuals who have temporary or permanent disabilities. Habilitation services involve a combination of treatment and education services which are designed to either increase or maintain the physical, intellectual, emotional, and social functioning of individuals who have not reached ageappropriate developmental milestones.

Relocation Assistance = Programs that provide assistance for people who have been displaced from their current homes or rental housing by urban renewal, redevelopment, conversion or demolition of condemned housing. Also included are programs that provide relocation assistance for people whose homes have been damaged or destroyed by a fire, flood, earthquake, hurricane, tornado or other disaster; or for individuals in other situations covered by the program.

Research = Programs that engage in research which involves the investigation, collection and analysis of scientific, demographic and other data with the objective of advancing knowledge different areas, enhancing our understanding of the major issues which confront our communities and finding solutions to basic human problems.

Respite Care = Programs that provide a brief period of relief or rest for family members, guardians or other people who are regular caregivers for dependent adults or children by offering temporary or intermittent care in the home or in community settings/facilities.

Respite Services = Services provided to individuals who are unable to care for themselves, furnished on a short-term basis because of the absence or need for relief of those unpaid persons normally providing the care.

Retirement Benefits = Public programs administered by retirement disbursement authorities that make monthly cash payments to eligible workers and their eligible dependents following retirement.

Return to Education Support = Programs that provide special support services for individuals, usually women or minorities, who are initiating or resuming a postsecondary course of study. Services usually include assistance with admission and registration procedures, financial aid, library materials, referral services, support groups and workshops which address a wide variety of topics including study skills.

Return-to-Work program = A Return to Work (RTW) program is a proactive, formal plan that helps injured workers remain at work or safely return to suitable work. It outlines the steps that workers, supervisors, and others within the organization need to take if an injury occurs.

Road to Mental Readiness = Road to Mental Readiness (R2MR) is mental health resilience education and training for CAF members and their families. Designed by the CAF, the overall objective of R2MR is to improve mental health outcomes of military members and families by preparing you pre-deployment, and supporting you post-deployment.

Scholarships = Programs that provide or assist students to apply for awards which usually involve money and/or reduced tuition.

Self-management = Self-management, which is also referred to as “self-control” or “self-regulation,” is the ability to regulate one’s emotions, thoughts, and behaviors effectively in different situations.

Sentinel Approach = Sentinel approach is the monitoring of the rate of occurrence of specific diseases/conditions by a voluntary network of physicians, laboratories and public health departments to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population

Service Animal Purchase/Training Assistance = programs that provide assistance to purchase and/or train service animals.

Service Animals = Programs that provide and train recipients in the use of animals who have been taught to help individuals who have disabilities increase their mobility and independence and/or maximize their ability to communicate effectively

Sexual Assault Center = A place that support people impacted by sexual violence and engage communities to promote respect and uphold a culture of consent.

Sexual Assault Treatment = Programs that provide specialized medical care for adults and/or children who have been sexually assaulted. Treatment includes an examination for internal and external injuries, collection of physical evidence of the assault, and preventive care and/or treatment in case of venereal disease or pregnancy. Services are often provided by emergency room staff at a hospital or other health care facility and may include other crisis advocates/representatives.

Shelter Information Services = Programs that provide support in finding shelter informations.

Shema-Focused Therapy = Schema-focused therapy for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a type of psychotherapy that focuses on identifying and changing specific unhealthy ways of thinking.

Short term accomodation = Establishment that operates as or offers a place of temporary residence, lodging or occupancy by way of concession, permit, lease, license, rental agreement or similar commercial arrangement for overnight accommodation, for one or more periods of less than 30 consecutive days, and not more than 180 total days over the duration of the calendar year, within a dwelling that is the principal residence of the proprietor of the establishment.

Skills evaluation/identification/development = Programs that provide an evaluation/an identification/a development of an individual’s ability to perform a specific skill or set of skills.

SMART Goals = Goals are part of every aspect of business/life and provide a sense of direction, motivation, a clear focus, and clarify importance. By setting goals, you are providing yourself with a target to aim for. A SMART goal is used to help guide goal setting. SMART is an acronym that stands for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Timely. Therefore, a SMART goal incorporates all of these criteria to help focus your efforts and increase the chances of achieving your goal.

Social Clubs/Events = Programs that provide organized opportunities for individuals of all ages to meet and socialize with their peers through dances, parties, picnics, barbecues and other companionable activities.

Social Health Insurance = Public social insurance programs that provide benefits to cover all or a portion of the health care costs of covered individuals and their eligible dependents.

Social Insurance Programs = Programs that have been established by law and are generally compulsory in nature which provide cash income on a regular basis or payments to meet a designated need for people who are entitled to benefits based on their own or their employer’s contributions to the program, their service to the country or their age. Although there may be assessment procedures to confirm eligibility, there are no financial means or assets tests associated with these benefits.

Social Services for Military Personnel = Public or private organizations that provide adjunctive supportive services for military personnel throughout the world which may include information, opportunities for recreation and socialization, entertainment, emergency leave assistance, lost baggage assistance, travel information, visa and passport assistance and rest facilities for individuals in transit.

Solution Focused Therapy = Programs that specialize in providing task-oriented therapeutic interventions which focus on helping people resolve a particular problem in their lives as opposed to looking at the etiology of the problem. Therapy is generally relatively brief, focuses on practical suggestions for dealing with the issue and concludes when a strategy for approaching the problem has been agreed upon and the person’s situation has been stabilized.

Special Education = Programs that provide educational services including special placement and individualized programming, instruction and/or support services for exceptional children, youth and/or adults, including those who have hearing impairments, visual impairments, physical disabilities, learning disabilities, developmental disabilities, emotional disturbance, multiple disabilities or speech or language impairments and who need appropriately modified curricula, teaching methodologies and instructional materials in order to learn.

Special Focus Community Economic Development = Programs that provide technical assistance, venture capital, loans, loan guarantees and other forms of management and financial support for individuals or groups who want to develop or expand the operation of businesses that are located in particular areas.

Special Interest Clubs = Programs that provide organized opportunities for individuals to pursue hobbies or other specific interests in cooperation with others who have the same interest, often through the medium of a club or society which is under the leadership of people who are knowledgeable or skilled in the area.

Specialized Crime Victim Assistance = Programs, usually provided by community agencies and independent of the police, that provide a variety of supportive services for victims of specific crimes and their families, particularly when related to family or sexual violence such as child abuse, sexual assault and elder abuse. Services may be available whether or not the victim has reported the crime to police.

Specialized Information and Referral = Programs that maintain information about community resources that are appropriate for a specific target group or human services sector and which link individuals who are in need of specialized services with appropriate resources and/or which provide information about community agencies and organizations that offer specialized services.

Spinal Cord Rehabilitation = Programs that provide inpatient and/or outpatient rehabilitation services which may include medical/physical restoration, physical and occupational therapy, training in the use of adaptive equipment, recreational therapy, psychological counselling, patient and family education services, physical and home management assistance, vocational or school reintegration assistance and other supportive services to help individuals who have become disabled by a spinal cord injury recover from their injuries to the extent that is possible and maximize their potential for independent living.

Spiritual Services = Programs that provide spiritual services.

Sport events = Programs that provide sporting events.

Sport Performance = Programs that provide sport performance.

Street Outreach Programs = Programs that are staffed by outreach workers who spend time with people who live on the street, build relationships with them, identify and address their immediate needs and provide information about and linkage to longerterm forms of support such as shelter, counselling, drug and alcohol detoxification and rehabilitation, care/case management and, where applicable, family reunification services.

Strenght-Based Approach = The strength-based approach has its foundation in social work. The Strength-Based approach is a “work practice theory” which focuses on an individuals’ self-determination and strength. This type of approach builds the clients on their strengths, specifically seeing them as resourceful and resilient when they are in adverse conditions.

Stress Innoculation = Stress inoculation is a type of therapy in which the client is exposed to stress in a controlled and measured way in order to increase their “psychological resilience” against stressors. This type of cognitive-behavioral therapy is intended to help with the consequences of previous stress and also ‘inoculate’ against future stressors. It is used before major stressful events like major surgery and military combat scenarios. Physical or psychological illnesses, divorce, rape, and PTSD are other situations in which stress inoculation therapy can be helpful.

Stress management = Programs that utilize a variety of techniques including demonstration, exercise and discussion to help participants increase their understanding of the conditions and habits that lead to stress, to learn more about the effects of stress on the body, to identify the stressors in their own lives, and to develop better ways of reducing or managing stress in their personal relationships and work environment.

Student Financial Aid = Programs that enable students who demonstrate financial need to obtain the financial assistance they require to meet their educational and living expenses while in school.

Student Loan Forgiveness/Repayment Programs = Programs that offer alternative arrangements for repayment of student loans under specified circumstances when borrowers are having trouble making their regular payments. Included are deferment programs which allow the individual to postpone repayment of the loan for an agreed period of time, generally with no interest accrual; forbearance arrangements which involve temporary postponement of payment on the principle but continued payment of the interest or capitalization of the interest; loan repayment programs under which the individual’s employer or another organization makes loan payments on behalf of the individual up to a specified limit; and loan forgiveness programs which involve cancellation of all or a portion of the loan amount in exchange for military service, volunteer work, teaching in schools that serve low-income families, work in a public interest law firm or meeting other criteria specified by the forgiveness program. Borrowers can also make other arrangements with the lender including more affordable payment plans and loan consolidation.

Student Loans = Programs that provide loans to meet the financial needs of students for whom grants and other forms of aid are inadequate or unavailable. Student loans are available at attractive interest rates and repayment is not required until after the student has completed school. The National Student Loans Service Centre manages all Canada Student Loans issued since August 2000. There are several types of assistance available, including federal student loans and provincial/ territorial student loans.

Substance Use Disorder Education/Prevention = Programs that provide information about substance use disorders and/or which offer any of a variety of services that focus on substance use prevention for people of all ages who are at risk.

Substance Use Disorder Services = Programs that provide preventive, diagnostic and inpatient, outpatient and residential treatment services as well as transitional support for people whose use of one or a combination of substances including alcohol, tobacco or other drugs has resulted in impaired control over their use of the substance, risky use, impairment of personal, social or occupational functioning and/or evidence of tolerance or withdrawal symptoms.

Substance Use Disorder Treatment Programs = Community and hospital-based programs that provide a variety of inpatient, outpatient and residential treatment services for individuals who have problems related to excessive use of alcohol and/or use of other drugs.

Suicide Risk Assessment = The Suicide Risk Assessment is an important part of the psychiatric interview. A suicide risk assessment is a comprehensive assessment that determines what an individual’s risk is for suicide at a given point in time.

Support Groups = Autonomous groups of individuals who share a common problem or concern, either directly or through their partners and families, who meet together on a voluntary basis, either in-person, or remotely, to fulfill a need, overcome a disability or cope with a crisis. Members of mutual support groups share their experiences, strengths and hopes and rely on one another for emotional support, information and resources.

Support to family = Program that provide support to the spouses, children, parents, other relatives, boyfriends, girlfriends or friends of an individual suffering from mental or physical health issues.

Support with documentation = Programs that provide support with any kind of paperwork.

Supportive Housing = Programs that provide an alternative living arrangement for individuals who, because of age, disability, substance abuse, mental illness, chronic homelessness or other circumstances, are unable to live independently without care, supervision and/or support to help them in the activities of daily living; or who need access to case management, housing support, vocational, employment and other services to transition to independent living.

Supportive Housing Placement/Referral = Programs that link people who are in need of a community care facility or other supportive housing placement with an appropriate provider.

Supportive Substance Use Disorder Services = Community and hospital-based programs that provide a variety of services for individuals who have problems related to excessive use of alcohol and/or use of other drugs and need support to commit to a treatment program, survive a substance use related crisis or sustain an abstinent lifestyle.

Supportive Therapies = Programs that use guided artistic expression or recreational activities, dietary management, hypnotherapy or other specialized interventions to improve the adjustment of individuals with mental, physical or developmental disabilities, substance use disorders, chronic health conditions or other problems. Supportive therapies are frequently auxiliary types of treatment used to facilitate other forms of therapy but may be also used for diagnostic purposes and are, on occasion, primary treatment modalities whose objectives are to foster health, communication and expression; promote the integration of physical, emotional, cognitive and social functioning; enhance self-awareness; and facilitate change.

Systemic Approach = The systemic approach refers to an analysis method; a way to handle a complex system with a global point of view without focalizing on details. It is a way to learn how the systems work. The systemic approach is also used with sociotechnical systems.

Talklines/Warmlines = Programs that offer a telephone service that enables people who are troubled to talk confidentially about their personal problems with an empathetic listener. These programs are often staffed by volunteers who can offer referrals for ongoing treatment, if needed.

Telemental Health = Programs that allow mental health professionals to use telecommunications technology including video conferencing, online chat or a phone call to provide psychotherapeutic services including crisis intervention, a mental health assessment and treatment for patients who are having difficulty coping with a traumatic experience, a health crisis or other problems, but are unable to participate in an in-person session or prefer an alternative. Use of telemental health services has a number of benefits such as making access to mental health services available to people who live in rural or remote areas where counselors may be scarce; eliminating a client’s need for transportation and any travel-related costs; and making it easier for patients to make time for appointments without having to take time off from work.

Temporary Financial Assistance = Programs that provide assistance for people who are experiencing an unexpected financial crisis and have insufficient resources to obtain essential services or to meet expenses in situations where financial assistance related to their specific circumstance is unavailable.

Text Based Counselling Services = Programs that offer text-based services that allow people who are troubled to share their concerns with a counsellor or trained volunteer who can help them cope with a traumatic experience or other type of crisis, a difficult relationship or make adjustments that are required in their particular stage in life. Text based services are particularly suitable for people who are concerned about confidentiality and anonymity.

The 5 Resilience Factors = The 5RF is an approach to building psychological resilience in paramedic services workers. It was developed to identify resilience skills most relevant to paramedic services workers and design a strategy for teaching these skills in a user-friendly and practical manner.

The 5 Stages of Recovery = The five stages of addiction recovery are precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance.

The thematic map and release = The Thematic Map & Release exercise was developed to better access how trauma has informed and formed us over time. Rather than addressing any single trauma, the focus here is to identify the beliefs or themes that we carry with us and to use this as the focus of the work.

Theatre Performances = Community and university-based programs or organizations operating on a commercial basis that offer plays and stage productions including Broadway shows, drama, comedy and musicals as well as mime, performance art and other theatre forms.

Therapy Referrals = Programs that link people who are in need of counselling services with private therapists who are qualified in the desired area of specialization.

Tools/Equipment = Programs that pay for or supply tools and equipment that are necessary for gardening, home maintenance, employment or other purposes.

Training and Employment Programs = Programs that provide job development, job training, job search, job placement, specialized job situations and other supportive services for individuals and groups who are having difficulty finding paid employment. These programs especially target people who have minimal job skills, veterans, older workers, members of minority groups and others who are vocationally disadvantaged.

Transcendental Meditation = Transcendental meditation is a type of meditation that uses mantras to transcend normal thought processes. This can help the practitioner relax and remove stress as well as aid in personal development.

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation = Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), is a non-invasive, painless brain stimulation treatment that uses direct electrical currents to stimulate specific parts of the brain.

Transitional Housing/Shelter = Programs that provide extended shelter and supportive services primarily for homeless individuals and/or families with the goal of helping them live independently and transition into permanent housing. Transitional housing/shelter is generally provided in apartment style facilities with a higher degree of privacy than short-term homeless shelters; may be provided at no cost to the resident; and may be configured for specialized groups within the homeless population such as substance use disorders homeless mentally ill, homeless domestic violence victims, or veterans. Included are post-domestic violence shelter housing programs that make affordable rental housing available to women, generally those who are coming directly out of a domestic violence shelter or other crisis shelter; and programs that provide transitional housing and support services for other targeted groups such as military and veteran families and others who need a temporary supportive living environment to maintain stability and begin to thrive.

Transitional Mental Health Services = Programs that provide services that facilitate the return to the community of people who have been hospitalized for treatment of acute or chronic mental or emotional disturbances.

Transitional Residential Substance Use Disorder Services = Programs that provide alcohol and other drug-free congregate living arrangements which facilitate the return to the community of individuals who are recovering from an alcohol and/or other drug use disorder, who may be leaving an inpatient or residential treatment program and who need ongoing support to sustain an abstinent lifestyle.

Transportation = Programs that provide for the basic transportation needs of the community including the local and long-distance conveyance of people and goods, and special arrangements for older adults, people with disabilities and other community residents who have no personal transportation and are unable to utilize public transportation. Also included are programs that provide information, emergency assistance and other supportive services to meet the needs of tourists, travellers and other visitors.

Transportation Expense Assistance = Programs that provide immediate cash, bus tokens, loans, loan/insurance payment support or other forms of financial assistance for people who otherwise have no means of transportation.

Trauma Counselling/Therapy = Trauma counselling (also referred to as trauma debriefing) is essentially the healing process which assists individual to deal with symptoms after a traumatic event.

Trauma Focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy = A conjoint psychotherapy model for individuals who are experiencing significant emotional and behavioural difficulties related to traumatic life events. It is a hybrid treatment model that incorporates trauma-sensitive interventions with cognitive behavioural, family and humanistic principles. TFCBT is designed to be a relatively short-term treatment, typically 12 to 16 weekly sessions. It can also be used as a part of a larger treatment plan.

Trauma Informed Approach = Programs, and/or systems whose approach to engaging people with a history of trauma involves recognition of the presence of trauma symptoms and acknowledgement of the role that trauma has played in their lives. It is distinct from trauma-specific interventions or treatments that are designed specifically to address the consequences of trauma and to facilitate healing.

Veteran Benefits Assistance = Programs that provide assistance for veterans who are having difficulty understanding and/or obtaining the full benefits and services to which they are entitled by law based on service to their country. The programs may help veterans understand the eligibility criteria for benefits, the benefits provided by the program, the payment process and the rights of beneficiaries; provide consultation and advice; help them complete benefits application forms; negotiate on their behalf with Veteran Affairs Canada staff; and/or represent them in administrative processes or judicial litigation. Included are veteran rights organizations that offer a range of advocacy services as well as legal aid programs that offer more formalized legal assistance.

Veterans’ Rights = Programs that support and promote veterans’ rights.

Virtual Reality Therapy = Programs that specialize in providing therapeutic interventions that use specially programmed computers, visual immersion devices and artificially created environments that to diagnose and treat psychological conditions that cause difficulties for patients. It is especially promising as a treatment for PTSD as well as a variety of anxiety disorders.

Visual Arts = Programs that support, promote, provide access to and encourage the enjoyment of paintings, sculpture, ceramics, photography, crafts, architectural works and other visual art forms.

Vocational Education = Secondary or postsecondary education programs available in regular or trade high schools or through separate vocational centres or programs that provide formal preparation for semiskilled, skilled, technical or professional occupations for highschool-aged students and, in some cases, adults who have opted to develop or expand their employment opportunities, often in lieu of preparing for college entry. Vocational education programs help participants prepare for full-time employment upon graduation, part-time employment while in school or for more advanced vocational training at the postsecondary level.

Vocational Rehabilitation = Programs that enable individuals with disabilities, people who abuse drugs or alcohol, or people who have emotional problems to obtain the training and employment experiences they need to achieve economic self-sufficiency.

Volunteer Association = A group of individuals who enter into an agreement, usually as volunteers, to form an organization to accomplish a purpose.

Volunteer Recruitment/Placement = Programs that identify individuals who have chosen to work on a full or parttime basis without remuneration in one of the human service fields and which systematically evaluate the skills, talents and personalities of recruited volunteers and match them with human service agencies that need voluntary support.

Volunteer Training = Programs that prepare individuals who have chosen to work on a full or part-time basis without remuneration in one of the human service fields for the specific type of volunteer activity in which they are interested. The program includes an orientation to and training in specific roles and responsibilities, and may include information about the general role, functions and policies of a specific agency if the volunteer is aware of his or her placement.

Welfare Rights Assistance = Programs that provide assistance for prospective or current public financial assistance recipients who are having difficulty understanding and/or obtaining the full benefits to which they are entitled by law under various income support entitlement programs. The programs may help people understand the eligibility criteria for benefits, how much they can work without affecting their benefits, the benefits provided by the program, the payment process and the rights of beneficiaries; provide consultation and advice; help them complete benefits application forms; negotiate on their behalf with public assistance benefits staff; and/or represent them in administrative hearings or judicial litigation.

Wilderness Therapy Programs = Programs that provide outdoor adventure courses for individuals struggling with emotional, social and behavioural challenges, with the aim of increasing self-esteem and self-reliance while fostering personal and social responsibility. Through immersion in an unfamiliar environment, group living with peers and the mastering of new skills such as fire-making and backcountry travel, participants are encouraged to push themselves and face challenges designed to be therapeutic in nature. Activities may include hiking, rock climbing, canoeing and kayaking, paddle boarding, mountain biking and horseback riding.

Women’s Circle = Women’s circles are gatherings of women for women.

Workers Compensation Benefits Assistance = Programs that provide assistance for people who are having difficulty understanding and/or obtaining the full benefits to which they are entitled by law under provincial Workers Compensation statutes. The programs may help people understand the eligibility criteria for Workers Compensation benefits, the benefits provided by the program, and the rights of beneficiaries; provide consultation and advice; help them complete Workers Compensation application forms; negotiate on their behalf with Workers Compensation benefits staff; and/or represent them in administrative hearings or judicial litigation.

Workshops/Symposiums = Programs that sponsor conferences, symposiums, seminars, workshops and other gatherings in which one or a variety of speakers are brought together to make presentations which address a particular human service topic with the objective of increasing participant awareness of the issues, problems and potential solutions that are facing residents of the community.

Youth Development = Programs that provide opportunities for children and youth to participate in a wide range of recreational, cultural, social and civic activities through membership in clubs, scout troops and other youth groups whose purpose is to help youngsters develop their potential and grow into healthy, educated, responsible and productive adults.

Youth Issues Information Services = Programs that provide information about specific youth-related topics such as alcohol and drug abuse; child abuse; sexuality; birth control; sexual assault; relationships; career and life choices, etc.